Introduction to pipelines and jobs
Note: Introduced in GitLab 8.8.
A pipeline is a group of jobs that get executed in stages(batches). All of the jobs in a stage are executed in parallel (if there are enough concurrent Runners), and if they all succeed, the pipeline moves on to the next stage. If one of the jobs fails, the next stage is not (usually) executed.
Types of Pipelines
There are three types of pipelines that often use the single shorthand of "pipeline". People often talk about them as if each one is "the" pipeline, but really, they're just pieces of a single, comprehensive pipeline.
CI Pipeline: Build and test stages defined in
Deploy Pipeline: Deploy stage(s) defined in
.gitlab-ci.ymlThe flow of deploying code to servers through various stages: e.g. development to staging to production
- Project Pipeline: Cross-project CI dependencies triggered via API, particularly for micro-services, but also for complicated build dependencies: e.g. api -> front-end, ce/ee -> omnibus.
Pipelines accommodate several development workflows:
- Branch Flow (e.g. different branch for dev, qa, staging, production)
- Trunk-based Flow (e.g. feature branches and single master branch, possibly with tags for releases)
- Fork-based Flow (e.g. merge requests come from forks)
Example continuous delivery flow:
Jobs can be defined in the
.gitlab-ci.yml file. Not to be
confused with a
build job or
See full documentation.
Seeing pipeline status
You can find the current and historical pipeline runs under Pipelines for your project.
Seeing job status
Clicking on a pipeline will show the jobs that were run for that pipeline. Clicking on an individual job will show you its job trace, and allow you to cancel the job, retry it, or erase the job trace.
How the pipeline duration is calculated
Total running time for a given pipeline would exclude retries and pending (queue) time. We could reduce this problem down to finding the union of periods.
So each job would be represented as a
Period, which consists of
Period#first as when the job started and
Period#last as when the
job was finished. A simple example here would be:
- A (1, 3)
- B (2, 4)
- C (6, 7)
Here A begins from 1, and ends to 3. B begins from 2, and ends to 4. C begins from 6, and ends to 7. Visually it could be viewed as:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 AAAAAAA BBBBBBB CCCC
The union of A, B, and C would be (1, 4) and (6, 7), therefore the total running time should be:
(4 - 1) + (7 - 6) => 4
Pipeline status and test coverage report badges are available. You can find their respective link in the Pipelines settings page.